Knee sprain is when ligaments in the knee are stretched or torn. There are 4 main ligaments in the knee that can be sprained, they are:

ACL – anterior cruciate ligament
PCL – posterior crciate ligament
MCL – medial collateral ligament
LCL – lateral collateral ligament

Grade 1 – Mild stretch/micro tearing of the ligaments. There is mild swelling and tenderness over the ligament if it is the MCL/LCL (unable to touch ACL/PCL)

Grade 2 – Moderate stretch/incomplete tearing of the ligaments. There is moderate swelling and tenderness over the ligament and usually some bruising occurs. Laxity is felt in the ligament, however there is an end feel when testing. The knee feels unstable to the patient.

Grade 3 – Complete tear of the ligaments in the knee. There is profuse swelling in the knee immediately. Severe laxity is felt when testing the ligament and the joint is very unstable.

Method Of Injury
– Mainly occur from a traumatic incident, often with the leg planted on the ground.

MCL – Direct blow to the outside of the knee
– Pain felt on the inside of the knee
– Able to “touch” the pain

LCL – Direct blow to the inside of the knee
– Pain felt on the outside of the knee
– Able to “touch” the pain

ACL – Direct blow to the front of the thigh with the leg planted
– Pivot of the body over the planted knee
– Hyperextension of knee
– Unable to touch the pain
– Usually a “pop” is felt or heard

PCL – Direct blow to the back of the thigh with the leg planted
– Direct blow to the tibia with the leg planted
– Hyperextension of knee
– Hyperflexion of the knee

Treatment – All knee sprains should be initially treated by the PIER principle (Pressure, Ice, Elevation, Rest)

MCL – Strengthen surrounding muscles
– Surgery is typically not performed on MCL injuries
– Hinged knee brace to support and protect from further injury

LCL – Strengthen surrounding muscles
– Surgery is typically needed to repair the ligament, as it does not have very good healing abilities
– Hinged knee brace to support and protect from further injury

ACL – Strengthen surrounding muscles, specifically the hamstrings
– Surgery is required to repair the ligament
– Lengthy recovery time after surgically repaired
– Custom knee brace is required to protect the ligament from re-injury

PCL – Strengthen surrounding muscles, specifically the quadriceps
– Surgery is not necessary for proper return to athletics, however reconstruction is recommended to prevent secondary complications
– Custom knee brace is required to protect against re-injury of the ligament

Stop your knee pain and get it checked, Call +65 6471 2744 / Email to: info@boneclinic.com.sg