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Shoulder Tendonitis

What is shoulder tendonitis/bursitis?

Shoulder bursitis and tendonitis are common causes of shoulder pain and stiffness. They indicate swelling (inflammation) of a particular area within the shoulder joint.

The shoulder joint is kept stable by a group of muscles called the rotator cuff as well as the bicipital tendon (the tendon that keeps the upper arm bone within the shoulder socket). When the rotator cuff tendon or the bicipital tendon becomes inflamed and irritated it is called rotator cuff tendonitis or bicipital tendonitis.

An area called the subacromial bursa lies in the space between the shoulder tendons. The bursa is what protects these tendons. Subacromial bursitis occurs when the bursa becomes inflamed.

Both conditions (shoulder bursitis and tendonitis) can cause pain and stiffness around the shoulder and may exist together.

What causes shoulder tendonitis/bursitis?

Tendonitis occurs as a result of sports injuries, by repetitive minor impact on the affected area, or from a sudden, more serious injury. For instance, professional baseball players, swimmers, tennis players, and golfers are susceptible to tendonitis in their shoulders, arms, and elbows. Improper technique in any sport is one of the primary causes of overload on tissues including tendons, which can contribute to tendonitis. But you don’t have to be a professional athlete to develop this condition. Anyone can get tendonitis, but it is more common in adults, especially those over 40 years of age. As tendons age, they tolerate less stress, are less elastic, and tear more easily.

Shoulder tendonitis/bursitis typically results from one or more of these factors:

  • Age: 40 and over
  • Frequent use of the arm in an overhead position or throwing motion, as in:
    • tennis or other racquet sports
    • swimming
    • baseball
  • Jobs such as overhead assembly work, butchering, or using an overhead pressing machine, heavy lifting
  • Direct blow to the shoulder area or falling on an outstretched arm
  • Other diseases or conditions that weaken shoulder muscles, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, psoriasis, or an unusual drug reaction
  • Infection (rare)

How is shoulder tendonitis/bursitis treated?

Treatment goals include reduction in pain and inflammation, as well as preserving mobility and preventing disability and recurrence.

The treatment recommendations may include a combination of rest, splints, heat and cold application. You may need more advanced treatments including:

  • Corticosteroid injections from your health care provider. They work quickly to decrease the inflammation and pain.
  • Physical therapy that includes range of motion exercises and splinting. This can be very beneficial.
  • Surgery, if you are not responding to other treatments.

When should you seek medical advice?

Most cases of tendonitis go away on their own over time. It may take weeks to months to recover, depending on the severity. See your doctor if you experience pain that interferes with your normal day-to-day activities, have soreness that doesn’t improve despite self-care measures, if you have recurrence, or if you have a fever and the area affected by tendonitis appears red or inflamed (swollen, warm). These signs and symptoms may indicate that you have an infection.

In addition, see your doctor if you have other medical conditions that may increase your risk of an infection, or if you take medications that increase your risk of infection, such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressants.

How can you prevent shoulder tendonitis/bursitis?

Because most cases of tendonitis are caused by overuse, the best treatment is prevention. It is important to avoid or modify the activities that cause the problem. Underlying conditions such as improper posture or poor technique in sports or work must be corrected.

Apply these basic rules when performing activities:

  • Take it slow at first and gradually build up your activity level.
  • Use limited force and limited repetitions.
  • Stop if unusual pain occurs.

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Osteoarthritis (Knee Pain Clinic)

Are you looking for effective way to manage and cure Osteoarthritis? You are at the right place. Stop your Knee Pain today! Call us at +65 6471 2744 or SMS to +65 92357641 to schedule for an appointment.

The most common form of arthritis, Osteoarthritis (OA) affects an estimated 40% of the adult population. Of these, only 10% seek medical advice and only 1% are severely disabled.

Knee Osteoarthritis

Knee Osteoarthritis

Causes

Osteoarthritis (OA) means inflammation of the joints although it is better known as a degenerative disease due to the inflammation of the joints with thinning of the articular cartilage. The cartilage in our joints allows for the smooth movement of joints. When it becomes damaged due to injury, infection or gradual effects of ageing, joints movement is hindered. As a result, the tissues within the joint become irritated causing pain and swelling within the joint.

Symptoms

In OA, you will have no problem in the morning on arising but as the day progresses your discomfort will increase.

In the evening, there will be a dull ache in the area of the affected joint.

Other symptoms include:

  • Pain
  • Swelling of the affected joints
  • Changes in surrounding joints
  • Warmth – The arthritic joint may feel warm to the touch
  • Crepitation – A sensation of grating or grinding in the affected joint caused by the rubbing of damaged cartilage surfaces
  • Cysts – In OA of the hand, small cysts may develop, which may cause the ridging or dents in the nail plate of the affected finger

The changes associated with degenerative arthritis tend to involve similar joints. Whereas in post-traumatic degenerative arthritis where there is a history of acute or chronic trauma, the changes tend to be isolated to the specific joints injured.

Risk Factors

Old age
As a person grows older, it becomes more likely that the cartilage may be worn away. OA is uncommon in people below 40 years of age.

Gender
Women are more likely to suffer from OA, especially after menopause.

Previous joint injury
Someone with a previous injury to the cartilage within the joint, e.g. after a fracture involving the joint or after a sporting injury to the joint will have a higher risk of developing OA later in life.

Weight
A greater than normal body weight puts more stress on the weight-bearing joints such as the hip and knee, increasing the likelihood of developing OA in these joints.

Bone deformities
People born with deformed joints or abnormal cartilage have an increased risk of OA.

Other diseases that affect the joints
Bone and joint diseases that increase the risk of OA include other arthritic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and gout.

Genetics
Genetic factors may predispose to the development of OA.

Diagnosis

The specialist will begin by taking a detailed history of your problem and past medical problems, followed by a physical examination. He may then proceed to other tests, such as:

X-rays
This is the most commonly performed test to evaluate the status of the affected joint and the alignment of the joint. Normal x-rays are safe, simple and pain-free.

Blood tests
Depending on the clinical findings, blood may be drawn for special testing, to rule out other causes of joint pain, e.g. due to rheumatoid arthritis, gout or infection.

Joint aspiration
Occasionally, especially when the joint is very swollen, the doctor may choose to suck some fluid out of the swollen joint for special testing. Removal of joint fluid also sometimes relieves pain.

Treatment Options

The goals for treatment for osteoarthritis are:

i. Pain relief
ii. Maintenance of function
iii. Prevention of associated deformities
iv. Patient education

The treatment for OA depends on the severity of the disease and the patient’s own lifestyle expectations.

Early cases of OA can generally be treated with:

  • Rest and lifestyle modification, such as weight loss and cessation of smoking
  • Use of aid (e.g. a walking stick). Use of good shoes is also helpful for relieving symptoms in some
    cases of OA
  • Exercise and physiotherapy to strengthen muscles and improve joint flexibility
  • Medication

In OA of the hand, rest can be accomplished by selectively immobilising the joint in a splint. Splinting is initially done for a period of 3 – 4 weeks, during which the splint is worn continuously.

This is usually combined with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication (NSAIDs) taken at the same time. If there is improvement in symptoms, use of the splint during the day is progressively diminished over the course of the coming month/s.

Use of NSAIDS
Gastrointestinal intolerance remains one of the major factors limiting the prolonged use of NSAIDs and may require temporary or permanent discontinuation of the anti-inflammatory agent. Concomitant use of H2 blockers, omeprazole, or misoprostol, a prostaglandin analogue that counteracts the mucosal effects of NSAIDs, may mitigate some of the gastrointestinal effects. Nephrotoxicity is a well-known complication of NSAIDs, and patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency should not take NSAIDs for extended periods.

Types of medication
There is presently no medication that can cure OA or regrow the cartilage in osteoarthritic joints.

The most commonly prescribed medications are painkillers. The type of painkiller prescribed depends on
the severity of the pain. For early disease with mild and occasional pain, simple painkillers, although more severe pain may require the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID’s) for relief. Analgesic (painkillers) creams and adhesive patches can also be used.

Glucosamine, with or without chondroitin, has also become a popular drug treatment in recent
years. It can be purchased without a doctor’s prescription.

However, it is ineffective in many patients, especially those with severe OA. The duration of its symptomatic relief also tends to be temporary. There is no evidence that glucosamine or chondroitin is able to result in cartilage repair.

Injections
For the treatment of OA, your doctor may sometimes recommend a lubricant injection to coat the cartilage and stimulate the healing process.

Surgery
Surgery is usually only offered for severe disease that has not responded to conservative treatments mentioned. Both the type of surgery and the decision for surgery are made following careful discussions between you and your doctor.

For many joints in the hands, arthodesis or fusion of the joint is the method of choice. In joint fusion, the arthritic surface is removed and bones on either side of the joint are fused to eliminate movement from the problem joint.

There may be some loss of movement but the pain ablation and stability may functionally improve the joint that is severely affected by the degenerative joint disease.

STOP YOUR KNEE PAIN TODAY. CALL US AT +65 6471 2744 Or SMS TO +65 92357641 FOR APPOINTMENT

Plantar Fasciitis (Heel Pain / Sole Pain)

Plantar Fasciitis is a painful condition resulting in pain under the heel. It is often caused by overuse of the plantar fascia or arch tendon of the foot. We explain symptoms, treatment, exercises, sports massage and more.

The Plantar Fascia is a broad, thick band of tissue that runs from under the heel to the front of the foot.  It is also known as a heel spur although they are not strictly the same. A heel spur is a bony growth that occurs at the attachment of the plantar fascia to the heel bone (calcaneus). A heel spur can be present (through repetitive pulling of the plantar fascia) on a foot with no symptoms at all and a painful heel does not always have a heel spur present.

The condition is traditionally thought to be inflammation. This is now believed to be incorrect due to the absence of inflammatory cells within the fascia. The cause of pain is now thought to be degeneration of the collagen fibres close to the attachment to the calcaneus (heel bone).

Plantar fasciitis symptoms

Symptoms of the plantar fasciitis include pain under the heel and usually on the inside, at the origin of the attachment of the fascia.  There can be pain when pressing on the inside of the heel and sometimes along the arch.  The pain is usually worse first thing in the morning as the fascia tightens up overnight and after a few minutes it eases as the foot gets warmed up.

As the condition becomes more severe the pain can get worse throughout the day if activity continues.  Stretching the plantar fascia may be painful and sometimes there may also be pain along the outside border of the heel. This may occur due to offloading the painful side of the heel by walking on the outside border of the foot. It may also be associated with the high impact of landing on the outside of the heel if you have high arched feet.

Tarsal tunnel syndrome symptoms can be very similar. If you have any shooting pain or tingling / numbness then consider this as an alternative diagnosis.

Causes

Plantar fasciitis or heel spurs are common in sports which involve running, dancing or jumping. Runners who overpronate (feet rolling in or flattening) are particularly at risk as the biomechanics of the foot pronating causes additional stretching of the fascia.

The most common cause is very tight calf muscles which leads to prolonged and / or high velocity pronation of the foot. This in turn produces repetitive over-stretching of the plantar fascia leading to possible inflammation and thickening of the tendon. As the fascia thickens it looses flexibility and strength

Some practitioners think overpronation can always be determined by the dropping and rolling in of the arch. This is not always the case. Sometimes it can only be seen with foot scans, especially if the patient has a high arched foot.

Other causes include low arch or high arched feet (pes planus / cavus) and other biomechanical abnormalities including oversupination which should be assessed by a podiatrist / physiotherapist / biomechanist.

Excessive walking in footwear which does not provide adequate arch support has been attributed. Footwear for plantar fasciitis – both prevention and treatment – should be flat, lace-up and with good arch support and cushioning.

Overweight individuals are more at risk of developing the condition due to the excess weight impacting on the foot.

Plantar fasciitis treatment

Although there is no single cure, many treatments can be used to ease pain.  In order to treat it effectively for the long-term, the cause of the condition must be corrected.

What can the athlete do?

  • Rest until it is not painful. It can be very difficult to rest the foot as most people will be on their feet during the day for work. By walking on the painful foot you are continually aggravating the injury and increasing inflammation.
  • A good plantar fasciitis taping technique can help support the foot relieving pain and helping it rest
  • Apply ice or cold therapy to help reduce pain and inflammation. Cold therapy can be applied regularly until symptoms have resolved.
  • Plantar fasciitis exercises in particular stretching the fascia is an important part of treatment and prevention. Simply reducing pain and inflammation alone is unlikely to result in long term recovery. The fascia tightens up making the origin at the heel more susceptible to stress
  • A night splint is an excellent product which is worn overnight and gently stretches the calf muscles preventing it from tightening up overnight.

What can a Sports Injury Professional do?

  • Prescribe anti-inflammatory medication.
  • Perform gait analysis to determine if you overpronate or oversupinate and prescribe orthotics or insoles. An insole can restore normal foot biomechanics if overpronation is a problem.
  • Tape the foot and instruct the athlete how to apply taping, this is an excellent way of allowing the foot to rest.
  • Apply sports massage techniques to reduce the tension and also stretch the calf muscles.
  • Prescribe exercises to help stretch the fascia and strengthen it once pain free.
  • Use a corticosteroid injection – usually best combined with biomechanical correction with orthotics.
  • X ray to see if there is any bone growth (calcification). An X-ray may be able to show bone growth which may be a cause of pain but research has shown that the presence of a bony growth does not necessarily mean the athlete will feel pain. Bony growth can worsen even after symptoms have completely resolved.
  • Use Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy.
  • Operate if symptoms do not resolve. This is more common for patients with a rigid high arch where the plantar fascia has shortened to benefit from surgery.

STOP YOUR HEEL PAIN TODAY. CALL +65 6471 2744 or SMS to +65 9235 7641 for Appointment now.

Inflammation

Inflammation is a process by which the body’s white blood cells and chemicals protect us from infection and foreign substances such as bacteria and viruses.

In some diseases, however, the body’s defense system (immune system) inappropriately triggers an inflammatory response when there are no foreign substances to fight off. In these diseases, called autoimmune diseases, the body’s normally protective immune system causes damage to its own tissues. The body responds as if normal tissues are infected or somehow abnormal.

What diseases are associated with inflammation?

Some, but not all, types of arthritis are the result of misdirected inflammation. Arthritis is a general term that describes inflammation in joints. Some types of arthritis associated with inflammation include:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Shoulder tendinitis or bursitis
  • Gouty arthritis
  • Polymyalgia rheumatica

Other painful conditions of the joints and musculoskeletal system that are not associated with inflammation include osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, muscular low back pain and muscular neck pain.

What are the symptoms of inflammation?

Inflammation is characterized by:

  • Redness
  • Swollen joint that is warm to touch
  • Joint pain
  • Joint stiffness
  • Loss of joint function

Often, only a few of these symptoms are present.

Inflammation may also be associated with general “flu-like” symptoms including:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Fatigue/loss of energy
  • Headaches
  • Loss of appetite
  • Muscle stiffness

What causes the symptoms of inflammation?

When inflammation occurs, chemicals from the body’s white blood cells are released into the blood or affected tissues in an attempt to rid the body of foreign substances. This release of chemicals increases the blood flow to the area and may result in redness and warmth. Some of the chemicals cause leakage of fluid into the tissues, resulting in swelling. The inflammatory process may stimulate nerves and cause pain.

What are the results of joint inflammation?

The increased number of cells and inflammatory substances within the joint cause irritation, wearing down of cartilage (cushions at the end of bones) and swelling of the joint lining.

How are inflammatory diseases diagnosed?

Inflammatory diseases are diagnosed after careful evaluation of:

  • Complete medical history and physical exam
  • The location of painful joints
  • Presence of joint stiffness in the morning
  • Evaluation of other symptoms
  • Results of X-rays and other tests

Can inflammation affect internal organs?

Yes. Inflammation can affect organs as part of an autoimmune disorder. The type of symptoms depends on which organs are affected. For example:

  • Inflammation of the heart (myocarditis) may cause shortness of breath or leg swelling
  • Inflammation of the small tubes that transport air to the lungs may cause an asthma attack
  • Inflammation of the kidneys (nephritis) may cause high blood pressure or kidney failure
  • Inflammation of the large intestine (colitis) may cause cramps and diarrhea

Pain may not be a primary symptom of the inflammatory disease, since many organs do not have many pain-sensitive nerves. Treatment of organ inflammation is directed at the cause of inflammation whenever possible.

How are inflammatory joint diseases treated?

There are a number of treatment options for inflammatory diseases including medications, rest and exercise, and surgery to correct joint damage. The type of treatment prescribed will depend on several factors including the type of disease, the person’s age, type of medications he or she is taking, overall health, medical history and severity of symptoms.

The goals of treatment are to:

  • Avoid or modify activities that aggravate pain
  • Relieve pain through analgesics (pain-relieving medications) and anti-inflammatory medications
  • Maintain joint movement and muscle strength through physical therapy
  • Decrease stress on the joints by using braces, splints or canes as needed

What medications are used to treat inflammatory diseases?

There are many medications available to decrease joint pain, swelling and inflammation and hopefully prevent or minimize the progression of the inflammatory disease. The medications include:

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs – such as aspirin, ibuprofen or naproxen)
  • Corticosteroids (such as prednisone)
  • Anti-malarial medications (such as hydroxychloroquine)
  • Other medications* including methotrexate, sulfasalazine, leflunomide, anti-TNF medications, cyclophosphamide and mycophenolate