Definition of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome:
Nerve compression syndromes cause symptoms including pain, numbness, and weakness. Nerves can become pinched for a variety of reasons. Most people are familiar with carpal tunnel syndrome, a condition where the median nerve is pinched in the wrist. In the case of cubital tunnel syndrome, one of the other nerves of the upper extremity, the ulnar nerve, is pinched as it passes behind the elbow. This is the same nerve that causes the tingling sensation of hitting your “funny bone.”
Hitting your funny bone is actually a sensation caused by irritating the ulnar nerve behind the elbow. When struck, this causes a shooting sensation and tingling in the small and ring fingers. The ulnar nerve transmits signals to your brain about sensations in these fingers–that’s why the fingers tingle when you hit the nerve in your elbow.
Symptoms of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome
In patients with cubital tunnel syndrome, the ulnar nerve is pinched in one of several locations in the back of the elbow. Common symptoms of cubital tunnel syndrome include:
- Pain, tingling and numbness in the small and ring fingers
- Weakness of the muscles in the hand
These weakened muscles, called the intrinsic muscles of the hand, help with finger movements. Patients with more severe symptoms of cubital tunnel syndrome may experience a tendency to drop objects or have difficulty with fine movements of the fingers.
The diagnosis of cubital tunnel syndrome is made after a thorough history and examination. X-rays or other tests may be ordered if there is a concern of something abnormal pressing on the nerve. Nerve tests, called EMGs, can help to determine the extent of nerve compression, and the location of the nerve compression.
Treatment of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome
Treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome usually begins with some simple steps. Many cases of cubital tunnel syndrome will resolve with a few simple treatments:
- Anti-inflammatory medications
- Splinting the elbow, especially at night
- Padding the elbow for work activities
If these simple treatments fail, surgery may be necessary. Surgery is performed to remove the pressure from the ulnar nerve. Because the nerve can be pinched at one of several locations behind the elbow it is important to know specifically where the nerve is pinched, or to release pressure from all f the possible areas of compression. In some patients, treatment consists of moving the nerve to the front of the elbow, so the nerve is under less tension when the elbow is bent; this is called an ulnar nerve transposition.
Depending on the severity of nerve damage, symptoms may resolve very quickly or they may never entirely resolve. In the most severe cases of cubital tunnel syndrome, some of the symptoms may persist despite surgical treatment.